To anyone who gets here: this project has been hanging fire almost since its inception and outline. It's taking forever. My apologies for the delay and *very* slow progress.

This is the original outline, written in September of 1997, of an essay on piano technique, that deals mostly with mental aspect of its existence and acquisition, but also then deals with the physical aspects that have been written about by others and finally deals with methods of practice and memory integrated with mental aspects.

So much has been said about physical aspects of practice and memorization, much of which has clear merit that in these matters I will have practically nothing to add. I will say when I think a mythology, over simplification or nonsense is being perpetrated,


Paradigms - Forms - Right Hemisphere - Visualization
Slowness of multisynaptic neural conduction rules
out purely conscious control from the motor cortex.
Monosynaptic training.
Hand Structure
	Intrinsic Muscles
	Extrinsic Muscles
Brain Structure
	Sensory and Motor Cortex
		Intrinsic proprioception
		Visual proprioception
		Internal Control Image and its refinement
			Physical position
				Sense of static position attenuates
				Requirement of motion (slight) to maintain
					correct position sense
			Tension Configuration
				Seems not to attentuate in static position
		Preparation in Control Image
		Preparation of Physical Position

	Occipital Lobe of the Cerebrum

	Monosynaptic reflexes of the Spinal Cord
		Training thereof

	Avoiding the completion illusion.
	Seaming - Extending object of focus & control
	Prolonging static position feedback through tension.
        Preexecution and postexecution neuronal potentials.
Minimal Motion
	Not always used but normative.
	Divergence from minimality has a purpose

		Closeness to keyboard
			Accuracy and speed
	Hand-Wrist-Forearm-Arm complex

Minimal Tension
Practised Exaggeration maintaining independence and minimal tension
Finger Independence
	Three motions: Attack, Release, Lift
Hand and Wrist Positions Given Notes
	Hyperposition of 'all' hand configurations for given note configuration
		Chord and block arpeggio hyperposition
	Complex position by subdivision
	Finger isolation within position
	Position of minimal tension
		Speed and smoothness
Horizontal Alignment
	Block transport
	Continuous transport as smoothing out of block sequence
	The visual image as aid in block change and leaps
Touch, Variety of position within note structure
Internal Image generalizes to the set (Hyperposition) of possible positions
	among which one may be cognitavely chosen

Metaprinciples of physiology and neurology:
	Generalized Imaging or Visualization  (The overall paradigm)
		'Geomtery' + 'Tension conguration'
	Tension minimization as normative
Principles of Development:
		Degrees of freedom:
			finger curl
			depth on keyboard
			wrist angle
			wrist height
			wrist rotation
	Transport and Smoothing
	Single finger isolation
		The Limp finger configuation, slightly curled.
		Back of the hand as horizontal plane.
		The Hinge image at first phalange joint
			Mental rehearsal of every movement before execution
			Compare rehearsal image to experiential image
		Minimal overall tension eliminates counter tensions that
			mask lack of independence
		Increasing stability
		Three movements
			Separately & in sequence
		Support by one finger with weight
		Complementation image and articulation
		Motion + support as 'weight playing'
		Slight flattening of fingers on black keys

		Resting on keys with fingers in position
		With keys depressed

	Finger isolation in sequencing.
		Individual fingers
		Again imaging and movement rehearsal using the image.
		Isolation relative to the otherwise immobile and relaxed hand
		Complementary fingers
			Local = adjacent
			Global = full complementary set
		Two movements keeping key contact
		Minimize lift, the third movement in three movements

		Consecutive fingers are slow 'trills' others are 'tremelos'

	Double trills and double tremelos

	Scale positions Major
		Harmonic Minor begins stretched positions other than scale

	Chordal positions		(Foundations for arppegios)
	Other arbitrary five finger positions

	Full finger independence is within arbitrary hand positions not just
	scale and chord positions

	Positions with (1, 2, 3, 4) key difference
		E.g. c# Db		(transition to chords)
	Getting into chords
		Object: preformed hand position that drops into chordal
			position on keyboard

		Pick a central note or two notes in the chord.  Get it
		right with that, not worrying about the remainder of the
		notes.  When that feels secure add another note, contunuing in
		this manner until you have the full chord.

	Solidity (simultaneity)
		The various positions of minimal tension.
		A subset of these will be of minimal tension in playing the

		Picture internally the hand position for the chord.
		Slowly place the hand into the chord.

		When in position, close your eyes and picture the hand
		in position on the keyboard.  Pay attention to the feeling
		of the hand in this position.  Keeping the hand completely
		at rest and immobile.  After a while the feedback from the hand
		will no longer supply the information for correct position;
		proprioception will be dimished.
		Move the hand very very slightly and very very slowly, while
		keeping the finger tips always in contact with their keys.
		Use all the degrees of freedom available 
		This allows a more general concept than a single hand position
		to form (hyperposition) that is attached to a chord or
		key group.

		All possible permutations of all possible groupings
		in any chord into (fixed & moving)
	Orchestration (varying dynamics of chordal constituants)
		In other than five fingered chords, there are one or two
		fingers not engaged.  It will probably be positioned over
		some note.  Use this as a pivot which remains quietly
		fixed resting on the note.  The notes of the chord can be
		divided into two groups in various ways.
		Play the notes of the chord
		Pick a central note

		Use five finger exercises, playing one note at a time and
		sequencing them in various permutations and combinations.
	[By Interval and position]
	Introduction of tension counter to independence when speed
		is premature
	Five finger exercises
			Diatonic scales
			Chromatic scales
				Liszt's fingering for chromatic scales
			One finger at a time, isolating the three motions
				All sequences and all scale positions
				(French fingering)
                                One finger scales
                                Two finger scales
			Isolate finger alternation (trills as subcase)
			Two fingers at a time as before using all combinations
				and sequencing.
			Diminished Sevenths
			Chopin Etude in g# Op. 25
			Liszt's fingering for chromatic thirds
			Chopin Etude in Db Op. 25
			Chopin Etude in b Op. 25
			Chopin Etude in C Op. 10

	The Technical Sudies of Liszt

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Created: October 10, 1998
Last Updated: May 28, 2000