The Progress of this case will be followed from a


in chronological order with links to appropriate documents.

                      18 USCA 1951 - The Hobbs Act

     * (a) Whoever in any way or degree obstructs, delays, or affects
       commerce or the movement of any article or commodity in commerce,
       by ROBBERY or EXTORTION or attempts or CONSPIRES so to do, or
       commits or threatens physical violence to any person or property
       in furtherance of a plan or purpose to do anything in violation of
       this section shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not
       more than twenty years, or both.
     * (b) As used in this section -
          + (1) The term ''robbery'' means the unlawful taking or OBTAINING
            of personal property from the person or in the presence of
            another, AGAINST HIS WILL, by means of actual or threatened
            force, or violence, or FEAR OF INJURY, immediate or future,
            to his PERSON or property, or property in his custody or
            or the person or property of a relative or member of his family
            or of anyone in his company at the time of the taking or OBTAINING.
          + (2) The term ''extortion'' means the obtaining of PROPERTY from
            another, WITH HIS CONSENT, induced by wrongful use of actual or
            threatened force, violence, or FEAR, or under color of official
          + (3) The term ''commerce'' means commerce within the District
            of Columbia, or any Territory or Possession of the United States;
            all commerce between any point in a State, Territory, Possession,
            or the District of Columbia and any point outside thereof; all
            commerce between points within the same State through any place
            outside such State; and all other commerce over which the United
            States has jurisdiction.

	    [Leaving the simple meaning of commerce: the exchange of
	     goods and services, to be understood.  There is no indication
	     in the statutory language that the underlying simple meaning
	     of "commerce" or that specifically define in paragraph (b)(3)
	     should be necessarily be construed on a large scale.] - wch
     * (c) This section shall not be construed to repeal, modify or
       affect section 17 of Title 15, sections 52, 101-115, 151-166 of
       Title 29 or sections 151-188 of Title 45.

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Created: February 4, 2000
Last Updated: August 10, 2000